Volume 1 Issue 1
Title of Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
|Edited by||Maryam Zain|
The Women University, Multan (Pakistan)
|ISO 4||Find out here|
NAC Transcription Factors Role in Various Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Author: Mansoor, Hafsa, Nadia Iqbal, Maryam Zain, Farah Deeba
NAC transcription factors are considered as main family of transcriptional regulators in plants. NAC gene family members play significant contribution in regulating transcriptional reprogramming in plants related to plant stress response. These proteins possess highly conserved DNA binding domains and play a diverse functions in several plants. NAC gene is related to several stress factors including biotic and abiotic factors. NAC transcription factors controls several interrelated processes and their protein products can function as negative or positive regulators in many cellular processes. These regulatory functions are also controlled by NAC proteins such as auto and cross regulation. These regulatory proteins are regarded as a central regulator for the interaction of phytohormones in various stress signaling pathways. This review highlights the role of NAC transcription factors in modulating gene expression and their role in various biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.
Role and Function of Eethylene Response Factor in Different Plants under Multiple Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Author: Akram, Rabia, Farah Deeba, Maryam Zain, Nadia Iqbal
These stresses effect crop production and quality, thus result is in economic lose and food insecurity. Many factors play vital role in regulating growth of plants along with developmental pathways during biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription factors are proteins that control physiological, developmental and stress responses in plants. Ethylene response factors belong to the biggest family of transcription factors, known to participate in various stress tolerance like drought, heat, salt and cold. They are significant regulators of plant gene expression. The objective of this review is to present how ethylene response factor family proteins became the focus of stress tolerance as well as the development and growth of plants.
Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase: Function and Responses to Different Stresses in Plants
Author: Khan, Sara, Nadia Iqbal, Farah Deeba, Raheela Jabeen
Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is the most commonly studied signaling mechanisms, consisting of different groups of protein kinases that participate in regularly connecting interpretation of external stimuli that can change in gene expression or cellular organization within eukaryotic systems. The MAP kinase pathways functions in plants cell signaling (intra- and extra). MAPK cascades follow a response system. MAP kinases are the component of kinase constituents that deliver signals from sensors to responders in eukaryotes including plants.Several pathways are activated under different environmental stresses. Stimulating agents may be biological (biotic) like microbial infections or environmental (abiotic) like temperatures threshold, high salt concentration, drought, heavy metal, Ultra-violet radiation, ozone gases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The involvement of MAPK signaling pathway in different stresses has been widely studied. In this review we also try to highlight MAPK cascades, its regulation, functions and recent findings in various cellular processes against stress conditions.
Functional study of WRKY Protein in different Plant and non-Plant species and its response under different biotic and environmental stresses
Author: Mujahid, Naila, Nadia Iqbal, Maryam Zain, Farah Deeba
WRKY transcription factors belong to one of the biggest superfamilies of proteins in higher plants. WRKY proteins participate in plant growth for instance, gamete formation, seed germination and are also responsive to different types of environmental cues including abiotic and biotic stresses. The DNA-binding site of WRKY factors is well established which interact with W‐box (TGACC(A/T)) located in the promoter of their target genes and promote the activation or repression of the expression of those genes to control their response against stresses but it remains difficult to establish thefunctions of every family members to control particular transcriptional programs during development or in response to environmental signals.This review summarizes the recent progress madein unraveling the various WRKY protein-controlled functions under different environmental stresses.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Behavior of Bacterial Isolates from Different Clinical Samples at Nishtar Hospital Multan
Author: Suhail, Maria, Nadia Iqbal, Khalid Usman, Farah Deeba
The pathogenic bacteria are getting resistant to antibiotics is significantly growing in the developing countries of the world including Pakistan. The present study was designed to find the basic study on resistance among the patients coming to the Nishtar Hospital, Multan. The study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Total 387 clinical samples of urine, pus, high vaginal swab (HVS) and wound were surveyed for the existence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. For these bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. E. coli was the most prevalent isolates followed by Staphylococcus aureusand Pseudomonas. E. coli was predominated in urine, pus, HVS and wound specimens. Occurance of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Candida and Pseudomonas were 7.9 %, 3.9 %, 14.7 % and 1.4 % respectively among the clinical specimens. E. coli shows highest resistance to Linezolid (98.3%) followed by Ceftrizone (90.8%), Sulfamethoxazole + Trimethoprim (85%), Moxifloxacin (82.5%). High frequency of resistance specifies that there is an unremitting requirement of surveillance of resistance behaviour of antimicrobial agents in our study is to investigate the trend of this problem.